An analysis of teratogenicity of electrocoagulation treated bio -ethanol effluent on the development of Xenopus Laevis Larvae

  • Sellah Odera
Keywords: Bioethanol Effluent, Teratogenicity, ELCAS


Developmental disorders were assessed by use of Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay (FETAX) where the embryos were exposed to numerous nominal concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 3%, 6%, 7.5, 8, 10, 12%, and 20%) of both raw (conventionally treated) and decolourized (treated by combined electrochemical and electrocoagulation technique – ELCAS) bio- ethanol effluent for 96 hours in a static renewal regime. The number of dead larvae were recorded and removed after every 24 hours while the abnormalities were enumerated and the type of abnormalities described. The LC50, EC50 and TI were used to evaluate the toxicity of the effluent. Data analysis was done by use of two-way ANOVA and G test. The LC50-96-hr for raw and decolourized bio-ethanol effluent (AGFC) is 12.9% (95% CL 11.15 – 14.65) and 15.81% (95% CL 13.34– 18.27) respectively. The EC5096-h for raw and decolourized effluents is 11.38% (95% CL 9.01 – 13.75) and 17.62% (95% CL 16.48– 19.17) respectively. The TI for the raw and decolourized effluent was 1.13 and 0.88 respectively. It was also deduced that the Raw AGFC effluent caused higher mortality at similar concentrations as those for the decolourized effluent. Raw AGFC effluent caused higher reduction in larvae body length as compared to the decolourized effluent. The abnormalities that were induced by raw AGFC effluent included tail flexures, incomplete gut coil and pericardial abdominal and cardiac edema while those induced by decolourized AGFC effluent included stunted growth, ocular abnormalities, cardiac edema, two tailed embryos and more complex abnormality where an embryo elicited more than one type of abnormality. The combined electrochemical and electrocoagulation technique (ELCAS) with wood ash as the coagulant used for decolourization reduced the toxicity of the effluent as evidenced by the mortality of the larvae and developmental disorders exhibited. This method was therefore efficient in reducing teratogenicity which is a specific kind of toxicity.


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